How did the Prophet achieve coexistence with other tribes outside Medina?
The Prophet’s policy in dealing with the polytheists fighting with the Quraysh after the Battle of the Trench
a- The treaty of Hudaibiyah: Sometime after the Battle of the Trench, Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings be upon him) along with his Companions left for Mecca, unarmed, with the intention of performing umrah [minor pilgrimage]. The Meccans however prevented from entering the city and sent an emissary to negotiate with the Muslims. The two parties decided to resolve the matter peacefully and a treaty was drawn up. One of the terms of the treaty allowed the Muslims to return the next year to perform their umrah.
b- Conquest of Khaybar: When the Jews conspired with the people of Quraysh to attack the Muslims, they were punished for violating the treaty that was drawn up between them and Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings be upon him) which stipulated that they should not side with any force fighting the Muslims.
c- The Conquest of Mecca: Then came the battle of Khaybar to break the siege of the northern section of the city. Then there was the historic Conquest of Mecca after Quraysh broke its promise to the Prophet. The conquest sought to break the siege of the Southern section of Medina.
2- The Prophet’s policy of coexistence with the People of the Book outside Medina
The Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) signed several agreements with the Jews and Christians living outside the borders of Medina, those living in the Arabian Peninsula and elsewhere. For instance, he signed a pact with the Christians of Najran in 10 AH (631 CE), with the Jews of Tayma and other cities in the Hijaz, as well as with Bannu Sakhr from Kinanah.
3- The Prophet’s policy in dealing with the Arabian delegates following the Treaty of Hudaibyah
The Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) was keen on gathering information about the Arab tribes that flocked Medina following the Treaty of Hudaibyah. Looking into the wisdom behind this provides us with much insight concerning the relations created under the model of Medina, under which the society enjoyed stability and security.
Understanding the Prophet’s wisdom in dealing with people from various tribes and cultures and who lived under a variety of conditions and circumstances which certainly shaped their character and mentality, teaches us how to create peaceful coexistence and deal with others. It also guides us into understanding the Prophet’s methods of education, reform, and teaching for the young and old, the weak and the strong, as well as the poor and the rich.
4- The Prophet’s policy in sending diplomatic missions to other countries
The Message of Islam is universal. It addresses the entire world for God the Almighty says in the Holy Quran: “Blessed is He who sent down the Criterion upon His Servant that he may be to the worlds a warner” [25: 1].
In his capacity as head of state, the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) sent emissaries and diplomats to the kings, emperors, chieftains and leaders of many empires, regions and states. He sent letters to Caeser, Chosroes, Negus, the Patriarch of Alexandria, the king of Bahrain and to many others.