What is the ruling for blood donation and its reward?
Man is the Best of Creation
Allah Almighty honored man; He favored him over the rest of His creation and prohibited him from inflicting harm on himself or violating the sanctity of his body. Moreover, one of the objectives of Islamic law is the preservation of the self. Allah Almighty says,
And We have certainly honored the children of Adam and carried them on the land and sea and provided for them of the good things and preferred them over much of what We have created, with [definite] preference [al-Isra': 70].
Among the manifestations of Allah's favor upon man, is that He created him in the best and most beautiful form; indeed it is a bounty from Allah Almighty. He says:
We created man in the finest shape [al-Teen: 4]
The human body is a trust for which man is responsible and therefore it is impermissible to tamper with it. Islamic law commands him to protect himself and his body from any harm and prohibits encroaching upon human life in any way. He says:
"Do not contribute to your destruction with your own hands, but do good, for Allah loves those who do good," [al-Baqarah: 195]
"Do not kill yourselves [or one another]. Indeed, Allah is to you ever Merciful." [an-Nisa: 29]
It is obligatory to seek treatment
Abu Huraira narrated that the Messenger of Allah [pbuh] said:
"O servants of Allah! Seek medical treatment, because Allah did not make a disease without making a cure for it save old age" [Bukhari and Muslim].
In another phrasing of the hadith, the Prophet [pbuh] says: "Allah did not make a disease without making a cure for it, save death."
It is permissible to donate blood if qualified trustworthy physicians determine the following:
• It will save the recipient from certain harm.
• It must not harm the donor's health or quality of life.
The above conditions fall under the permissibly of saving another's life and altruism as attested to by the Qur`anic verses:
"They give them [those who migrated] preference over themselves [dwellers of Madianh], even if they too are poor. And whoever is saved from the greed of his soul then they are the successful." [al-Hashr: 9]
Blood donations are based on the analogy of saving people from drowning, burning or being buried under a collapsed building all of which involve the potential harm of the person trying to save them.
Allah Almighty says:
"And cooperate in righteousness and piety, but do not cooperate in sin and aggression." [al-Maida: 2]
The reward for donating blood
• Allah rewards the legally competent and healthy person who donates his blood to save another. He will either raise his rank or forgive him his bad deeds. Allah Almighty says:
"Shall the reward of good be anything but good?" [al-Rahman: 60]
• The Prophet [pbuh] said: "Muslims are brothers to one another. Allah fulfills the needs of whoever fulfills the needs of a fellow Muslim. A Muslim does not oppress a fellow Muslim, nor does he hand him over to an oppressor. Whoever relieves a burden from a fellow Muslim, Allah will relieve him of one of the burdens of the Day of Judgment. And whoever covers [a fault] for a Muslim, Allah will cover for him on the Day of Judgment" [Bukhari].
• The Prophet [pbuh] said: "Whoever relieves the distress of a Muslim in this life, Allah will relieve him of a distress on the Day of Judgment; whoever facilitates a Muslim's difficulty, Allah will facilitate his difficulties in this world and in the Hereafter; whoever conceals the faults of Muslim, Allah will conceal his faults in this world and in the Hereafter. Allah will help whoever helps a fellow Muslim" [Abu Dawud].
There is no objection to donating blood. However, the following conditions must be observed before donating:
1. The existence of an overwhelming necessity such as donating blood to the victims of accidents and catastrophes, and for those undergoing surgery.
2. Blood donations must be of benefit and prevent harm.
3. Physicians must determine that such a donation will not prevent the donor from pursuing his life in a normal manner.
4. Medical tests must prove that the donor is free from diseases. This is because of the legal axiom "Harm is not to be removed by another".
5. The donor must be legally competent.
Allah Almighty knows best.