Zakat on some types crops and fruits
A CEO of a company that owns an orchard for commercial purposes wants to know which of the following crops and fruits are subject to zakat and how it is to be paid out.
- 400 feddans of fruit bearing olive trees irrigated with well water through a network of drip irrigation.
- 100 feddans of fruit bearing grape vines irrigated with well water through a network of drip irrigation.
- 2000 fruit bearing palm trees irrigated with well water through a network of drip irrigation.
- 25 feddans of fruit bearing mango trees irrigated with well water through a network of drip irrigation.
- 600 feddans of grain (eg. wheat, sesame, corn, and broad beans) irrigated with canal water by means of a pump station and devices for drip irrigation.
- 300 feddans of vegetables (eg. zucchini, peas, and okra) irrigated with canal water by means of a pump station through a network of drip irrigation.
There is a consensus that zakat is payable on grapes, dates, and wheat. Abdullah ibn 'Umar was asked about [zakat on] ore, pearls, gemstones, gemstone beads, and on crops such as legumes and cucumbers. He replied: "There is no zakat on precious stones or legumes." The Messenger of Allah [P.B.U.H] prescribed zakat on wheat, barley, dates, and raisins" This hadith was reported by al-Darqatni with weak chains of transmission. Ibn Hajar mentioned in Al-Talkhis that al-Bayhaqi reported a hadith through raised chain transmissions with the same meaning. He quoted al-Bayhaqi as saying that because these raised chain hadiths were related through different means, they support one another.
'Umar ibn Al-Khattab said: "The Messenger of Allah prescribed zakat on the following four: wheat, barley, raisins, and dates" [Al-Daraqtni].
Mu'adh and Abu Musa, may Allah be pleased with them both, said that the Messenger of Allah [P.B.U.H] sent them to Yemen to instruct the people in their religion and ordered them not to take zakat except from wheat, barley, dates, and raisins" [Reported by al-Hakim who also declared it authentic. Al-Dhahabi maintains the same opinion].
Scholars differ on whether zakat is payable on fruits, vegetables or other kinds of crops other than wheat, barley, dates and raisins. Our opinion is to follow the Shafi'i school of jurisprudence maintaining the zakatability of fruits, vegetables and other kinds of crops as well as the staple crops that people cultivate and the sole consumption of which can sustain the body such as corn and broad beans from among those mentioned in the question. Moreover, zakat is not payable on olives because it cannot be stored, on mangoes because it is not payable on fruits other than grapes and dates, on vegetables of any kind, nor on sesame. Imam al-Damiri wrote in al-Negm al-Wahag 'ala Sharh al-Manaheg: "There is no contention about zakat not being payable on [crops] which are not storable nor considered staple foods such as quince, apples, pomegranates, water-melons, cucumber, white beet, sesame …" (3:1666).
Because these crops are irrigated by machines, then the payable amount of zakat is 5% due to the hadith narrated by 'Abdallah Ibn 'Umar (may Allah be pleased with them both): "5% is owed on crops irrigated by artificial means" [Bukhari]. Muslim relates a similar hadith from a narration by Jaber Ibn Abdallah (may Allah be pleased with them both).
Allah the Almighty knows best.