Is it allowed to fast the makeup days of Ramadan and combine it with the days of Shawwal?
Is it permissible for women to make up their fasting days that she missed because of her menstrual period during the six days of Shawwal and have the reward for the six days of Shawwal?
According to many of the jurists it is permissible to couple extra fasting days with canonical days of fast and not the other way around, meaning it is not permissible to couple the intention to fast a canonical fast with an intention to fast an extra day. By way of example Imam al-Ramli has commented on Imam al-Nawawi’s Minhaj by saying:
It is stated in the commentary of al-Muhadhab that if one prays more than two units of prayer [in praying the sunna two units for greeting a mosque] with one salutations it is permissible as all of them [units of prayer] are the prayer of greeting the mosque as they contain the two units.
Praying the greeting prayer of the mosque can be achieved by either a canonical prayer or another supererogatory prayer,’ whether one has made an intention for this or not as what is sought is a prayer before sitting, and this is achieved with what has been mentioned. The intention for the greeting prayer does not invalidate this prayer as it is a sunnah which is not intended, contrary to the intention of the canonical prayer alongside with the intention for a supererogatory prayer which is not valid.”
As for the specific question posed above, the jurists of the Shafi’i School are of the opinion that whoever makes up missed days of Ramadan during the six days of Shawwal, they have fulfilled their religious obligation as well as gaining the reward for the six extra days of fast during Shawwal. However, one should not intend to fast the six days of Shawwal, rather they should intend only to make up what they missed from Ramadan, and since these make up days will fall during the six days of Shawwal the reward of the sunnah fast is gained as well.
Indeed the generosity of God is vast. This opinion is based on the hadith of the Prophet, “Whoever fasts Ramadan and follows it with six days from the month of Shawwal, it is as if they have fasted the entire year.” He did not mention that these six days need a specific intention; rather he talked about Ramadan being followed in general by six days from Shawwal. These six days can be achieved by intending a sunnah fast or to make up days missed in Ramadan.
Imam al-Ramli issued a fatwa stating this position, “the person making up missed days from Ramadan in Shawwal, even if he has intended other than the fast of Shawwal has also gained the reward for the six days of Shawwal. This issue has been mentioned by many of the later jurists.”
Based on this it is permissible for a woman to make up her missed days of Ramadan during Shawwal and achieve the reward for fasting six days of Shawwal. This is in accordance with what has been mentioned and based on the permissibility of someone entering a mosque and praying two units of prayer intending that they be canonical prayers, or sunnah prayers, and achieve the greeting of the mosque prayer. God is most high all knowledgeable.