Paying zakat at the end of the lunar year, transferring it from one country to another, and the fast of a pregnant woman
I am an Egyptian living and working in Saudi Arabia. My money accumulates and increases over the year. For instance, the sum-at the beginning of the year- is 20.000 Riyals which monthly increases in a certain rate. If the total sum- after the passage of the year- became 80.000 Riyals, should Zakat be paid on the total sum?
My second question is: Should I pay it in the country of my residence or in Egypt? What is the legal ruling for my wife who can not fast in Ramadan because she will be in her third month of pregnancy?
Zakat on money is due if the owner of a property:
1. Possesses the minimum amount upon which Zakat is owed (Ar. nisab) or more;
2. and one lunar year has passed.
Based on this and in reference to the example mentioned by the petitioner: Zakat should be paid on the total sum of 80.000 Riyals after the passage of the lunar year-which is the easiest way to pay Zakat. If you want to pay Zakat on each sum separately when one year has passed, there is no legal objection to doing so.
The principal is that Zakat be paid in one's country of residence unless there is a benefit in doing otherwise- such as wishing to give it for someone in a dire need or one of your relatives in your country; since the reward for giving Zakat to a relative-who is not one of your independents- is doubled.
The second answer: if your wife fears for herself, or fears for both herself and the fetus, she must only make up for the missed fast-days and she does not have to pay fiddyah (En. Penalty fee paid for missing fast days without an excuse). However, if she only fears for the fetus-especially if specialized physicians warned her that fasting may harm the fetus- she must then make up for missed fast days and pay fiddyah: it is to pay a mudd (0.51 liters) of food to the poor for each missed fast-day. A Mudd is one quarter of saa' which means the one-quarter of the amount paid for Zakat al-fitr including grains or dates or the like that fulfills the obligation.
Allah Almighty knows best.