Praying the dhuhr prayer after the Friday prayer
What is the ruling according to Shafi’i jurisprudence for performing the dhuhr (noon) prayer after the Friday prayer if the conditions of holding the Friday prayer are fulfilled in a place where no multiple Friday prayers are held? In Chechnya, we follow only the Shafi’i school of jurisprudence.
It is known in Islamic law that the purpose of holding the Friday prayer is to manifest unity among Muslims. For this reason, the majority of scholars have stipulated that the Friday prayer should neither be preceded nor held concurrently with another Friday prayer in the same location except if the latter is so big that it is difficult for people to gather in the same place. In such a case, it is permissible to hold more than one Friday prayer simultaneously depending on the need.
There are two opinions in the Shafi’i school of jurisprudence on this issue: The soundest opinion which is also the dominant opinion of the school, maintains the permissibility of holding more than one Friday prayer as needed. The other opinion maintains its impermissibility even for a need. To remove oneself from the scholarly controversy over this issue, scholars have recommended that the one who prays the Friday prayer in a place where other Friday prayers are held due to necessity and does not know which prayer preceded the other, is to repeat it as a dhuhr prayer as a precautionary measure.
The dominant opinion in the Hanafi School maintains the permissibility of holding the Friday prayer in several locations in the same city. Imam Al-Sarkhasi mentioned this as the sound opinion of Abu Hanifa's school.
From the above, it is concluded that:
• According to the majority of scholars, one of the conditions for the validity of the Friday prayer is that it should not to be preceded or held concurrently with another Friday prayer in the same location except for a necessity.
• It is permissible to hold several Friday prayers due to a necessity such as lack of space or difficulty of gathering in the same place.
•As a precautionary measure and to avoid the controversy of scholars who do not permit holding more than one Friday prayer even when necessary, it is recommended to repeat it as a dhuhr prayer if one is not sure whether one’s Friday prayer preceded or was held simultaneously with another.
It is recommended and not obligatory to repeat the Friday prayer as a dhuhr prayer according to the opinion of the scholars who maintain the permissibility of holding more than one Friday prayer in the same town. It is not permissible to censure anyone who follows this opinion; rather, we must follow the etiquette of our pious predecessors regarding scholarly disagreement.
Allah the Almighty knows best